Mengapa Manusia Mengantuk?

Ilmuwan sudah tahu mengapa manusia butuh tidur. Tapi ilmuwan masih garuk kepala bagaimana otak memutuskan kapan manusia butuh tidur. Penelitian terbaru bisa memberikan petunjuk mengenai hal itu.


Sebuah penelitian terbaru pada tikus mendapatkan sel otak yang disebut astrocyte sebagai bahan pendorong untuk tidur dengan mengeluarkan adenosine. Zat itu merupakan bahan kimia yang menimbulkan efek mengantuk dan bisa dikurangi dengan kafein.

Makin lama manusia atau binatang terjaga, makin besar rasa kantuk. Hal ini disebut tekanan untuk tidur. Penelitian mendapati adenosine sebagai pemicu tekanan untuk tidur. Bahan kimia ini terkumpul selama jam terjaga, yang membantu menstimulasi pola unik di aktivitas otak yang terjadi selama tidur.

“Adenosine dari astrocyte jelas penting dalam menyebabkan tekanan tidur,” kata anggota tim Michael Halassa dari Tufts University School of Medicine di Boston.

Penelitian ini merupakan pertama kali sel non syaraf di otak menunjukkan pengaruh, kata Halassa. Beda dengan neuron, astrocyte tidak memicu tekanan elektrik.

“Penelitian ini dapat untuk memproduksi obat yang lebih baik untuk mendorong rasa mengantuk jika dibutuhkan dan mencegah rasa kantuk jika berbahaya,” kata Merrill Mitler dari National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke



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